Physiology and anatomy of reproduction


Learning objectives :

The objective of this distance learning course is to understand the basis of dairy bovine physiology and anatomy reproductive system. This knowledge is a requirement to good dairy management, because all commercialisable products from dairy farms (calves, heifers, milk, cheese) depend on reproductive efficiency. High reproductive efficiency is a requirement for economical milk production on most dairy farms. Measures of reproduction efficiency include: 1) services per conception; 2) conception rate on first service (the time from when a cow calves until the first time she is inseminated); 3) days open (the time from a cow calves until when she conceives), and 4) calving interval (the time between when the cow delivers a calf until the next calf is born).

  • Service per conception = Total inseminations to pregnant cows / Total number of pregnant cows;

  • Conception rate on first service = Total pregnant cows x 100 / Number of cows inseminated the first time in the herd;

  • Days open = Total days from calving to conception for pregnant cows + days from calving to current date for open cow / Number of breeding cows in the herd;

  • Calving interval = Number of months from previous to current calving / Number of cows in calving group

Basic knowledge in bovine physiology and anatomy re¬productive system will aim the development the students' capacity to dialogue with farmers, veterinarian and others professionals of dairy sector.

The content of this brick is:

  • Reproductive female tract;

  • Estrous cycle;

  • Gestation;

  • Calving;

  • Puerperal period;

  • Reproductive male tract.

The contents of this distance learning course were adapted from: “Principles of dairy science” (Schmidt, Van Vleck and Hutjens, 1988), “Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology of the Cow” (Whittier, 1993), “Reproductive Tract Anatomy and Physiology of the cow” (Jason Turner, 2014), “Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology of the Bull” (Jack C. Whittier, 1993).

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